Metabolic BioMarkers and Origins 5in1

The Gut Microbiome Is Where It All Starts

Metobolic Biomarkers - Rogue Origins
  • The gut microbiome affects every aspects of human and animal health. Probiotics and pre-biotics modulate the gut microbiome. Gut microbiome and gut hormones impact the health of its host by mediating the dietary metabolism, gut permeability and nutrient absorption.
  • Studies have speculated that the role of the gut microbiome influences the production of gut hormones. Insulin and Glucagon works together for the control of cellular homeostasis. Impairment of this homeostasis results in diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases.
  • Until now, the influence of probiotics and pre-biotics on the secretion of gut hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1), glucagon-like peptide -2 (GLP-2), oxyntomodulin and glucagon were not understood clearly.
  • In this study, we have evaluated the effect of probiotic and pre-biotic supplements on the gut hormones levels in canine models.  Dogs have been used as a translational model for diabetes mellitus diagnostics and therapeutics. The gut microbiome of dogs is closer to humans than pigs or mice. Probiotic and pre-biotic interventions have been proposed for the treatment of diabetes and obesity and metabolic syndromes. 
  • Ansh Labs, USA, has developed specific immunoassays (ELISA) for canine glucagon family hormones. Glucagon, a 29-amino acid peptide secreted from pancreatic alpha cells in response to hypoglycemia. Glucagon is derived from proteolytic cleavage of proglucagon molecule by PC2 enzyme in pancreas.
  • Furthermore, Glucagon, Glicentin, oxyntomodulin, GLP-1 and GLP-2 are produced by PC1/3 enzyme in intestine and brain. In this study, 10 male and female dogs from different ages and breeds were given probiotic and pre-biotic supplementation for one month.
  • Plasma samples were collected after 8 hrs. of fasting at before and after study period of one month. The plasma samples were measured for the circulating levels of glucagon, oxyntomodulin, GLP-1, and GLP-2 before and after supplementation.
  • After pre-biotics and probiotics intervention for 4 weeks, the mean fasting levels of oxyntomodulin and GLP-1 were significantly changed.  The mean value of oxyntomodulin decreased and the mean value of GLP-1 increased significantly after intervention. The mean value of glucagon and GLP-2 were not altered significantly.
  • The results suggest that pro and pre-biotic dietary supplements significantly alter the secretion of gut hormones by enteroendocrine cells. These alterations of gut hormone secretions may underlie some of the physiological effects of probiotic and pre-biotic interventions in patients with metabolic or intestinal dysfunctions. For example, the basal levels of glucagon and oxyntomodulin were higher in diabetes and obesity patients than normal controls in human studies. GLP-2 levels were higher in patients with Inflammatory bowel disease which increases the gut permeability. GLP-1 receptor analogues has been used for the treatment for diabetes. We suggest that these gut hormones may serve as biomarkers for the evaluation of efficacy of pre-biotics and probiotics.

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